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Urology


Answer 3
  1. Rheumatoid arthritis. Hyperparathyroidism is associated with calcium stones caused by the increase of parathyroid hormone and subsequent hypercalcemia/hypercalciuria. Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases cause calcium stones due to the granuloma secreting 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Gout is associated with hyperuricocemia and hyperuricosuria, which promote uric acid, and calcium oxalate stone formation. Renal tubular acidosis is a defect in the ability of renal tubular cells to secrete hydrogen ions with a subsequent increase in the pH of urine. The urine’s higher pH leads to increases in divalent and trivalent phosphate, which leads to calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation. Rheumatoid arthritis is not associated with urinary stones.

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