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Urology


Answer 2
  1. Pain relief while the patient is lying still on the unaffected side. Renal or ureteral colic is characteristic of a urinary tract stone. The crescendo of pain begins in the flank and commonly radiates to the anterior abdomen and ipsilateral testicle or labia. If the stone is near the bladder, irritant symptoms (eg, urinary frequency and urgency) are common. Because of the common innervation of the kidneys and stomach by the celiac ganglion, nausea and vomiting are frequent complaints noted in patients with stones. Patients with renal or ureteral colic typically do not lie still but writhe in pain, unable to find a comfortable position.

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