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Urology


Answer 4
  1. Round cells can be segregated into leukocytes and immature germ cells through peroxidase staining techniques. Leukocytes and immature germ cells look similar under light microscopy. Several staining techniques have evolved to distinguish between the immature germ cells and leukocytes. Some studies have found higher rates of infertility in men with higher leukocytes in semen analysis. Direct assays measure antisperm antibodies on patientıs sperm, whereas indirect assays measure serum antibodies. Kartagenerıs syndrome, not Kallmannıs syndrome, refers to the triad of frequent respiratory tract infections, immotile cilia, and situs inversus. Kallmannıs syndrome is hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with anosmia. Hormonal studies are not required for the evaluation of isolated asthenospermia. Vasography locates areas of obstruction. This is performed by opening the vas deferens and obtaining sperm. Next, the vas deferens is cannulated, and contrast medium is injected toward the bladder. Retrograde injection of contrast towards the testicle is not performed because of the risk of epididymitis.

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