Worldwide, bladder cancer has been definitively linked to the
parasite Schistosoma haematobium. This chronic infection can
lead to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In Egyptian men, SCC of
the bladder has the highest incidence of any cancer. Adenocarcinoma
accounts for less than 2% of primary bladder cancers. Small cell
carcinoma is an extremely rare primary bladder cancer. In the United
States, transitional cell carcinoma is the leading pathologic carcinoma
of the bladder and has been linked to cigarette smoking and use of
aniline dyes. SCC, although rare in the United States, can be found in
patients with indwelling catheters.
- Squamous cell carcinoma.
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Seminars in Medical Practice
Hospital Physician Board Review Manuals
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