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Self-Assessment Questions


Answer 3
  1. Vesicovaginal fistula. The classic presentation of a vesicovaginal fistula is continuous (day and night) incontinence following a recent pelvic operation such as a vaginal hysterectomy. However, a watery vaginal discharge accompanied by normal voiding may be the only symptom. Perineal dermatitis may result from long-term exposure to urine. Typically, vesicovaginal fistulas are clinically evident within 10 days of the injury. Cystoscopy and upper urinary tract evaluation should be completed in every patient with a urinary fistula.

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