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Answer 2
  1. Video electroencephalography. The video EEG is the gold standard for diagnosing NES. During the study, the electroencephalographic tracing is coregistered with video of the patient’s events. Epileptiform activity, which consists of focal or generalized epileptiform discharges, including sharp waves or spikes or any ictal pattern on the EEG, is an indicator for epilepsy. Direct observation of a patient’s event, coupled with a normal background electroencephalographic pattern or one that reveals no epileptiform activity, provides the diagnosis of NES.

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