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Oncology


Answer 1
  1. There is no gender preference. In the United States, the male to female incidence of bladder cancer is almost 4:1.1 The male predominance appears to be related to the greater prevalence of smoking and exposure to occupational carcinogens in men. Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy affecting the urinary system, with approximately 67,000 new cases of bladder cancer and 13,750 deaths from the disease each year in the United States. Non-Hispanic white men are at highest risk for developing bladder cancer, followed by African Americans and Latinos, Asians, and American Indians.2 A possible explanation for these disparities is variations in acetylator phenotypes in different racial/ethnic groups. More than 90% of bladder carcinomas are TCCs derived from the uroepithelium; approximately 6% to 8% are squamous cell carcinomas, 2% are adenocarcinomas, and 1% are small cell carcinoma.3 Although the relative risk of developing bladder cancer is higher in patients exposed to occupational toxins as compared with those who smoke, smoking is more prevalent, making it the single most important risk factor for the development of urothelial tumors.1

    REFERENCES
    1. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, et al. Cancer statistics, 2007. CA Cancer J Clin 2007;57:43-66.

    2. Howe HL, Wu X, Ries LA, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2003, featuring cancer among U.S. Hispanic/Latino populations. Cancer 2006;107:1711-42.

    3. Mostofi FK, Davis CJ, Sesterhenn IA. Pathology of tumors of the urinary tract. In: Skinner DG, Lieskovsky G, editors. Diagnosis and management of genitourinary cancer. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1988:83-117.

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