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Answer 2
  1. Both smoking and obesity have been associated with an increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma. Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma, which has been directly related to intensity (number of cigarettes) and duration (years smoked) of smoking. Long-term quitters (>15 yr) and those who started smoking late in life have a lower risk of renal cell carcinoma as compared with current smokers (relative risk, 1.2 versus 1.7 compared with the population that has never smoked).2 Similarly, there is a direct correlation between increased body weight and risk of developing renal cell carcinoma in both men and women. This risk is in direct proportion to body mass index. The adjusted risk for patients with a body mass index greater than 40 kg/m2 is approximately 3.7 times higher than that in patients with a normal body mass index (body mass index, 20-25 kg/m2).2

    2. Laber DA. Risk factors, classification and staging of renal cell cancer. Med Oncol 2006;24:443-54.

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