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Obstetrics & Gynecology


Answer 3
  1. Irregular menstruation. Decreased frequency of ovulation and erratic levels of ovarian secreted hormones cause irregular menstruation in the perimenopause. Approximately 90% of women experience 4 to 8 years of menstrual irregularities before menopause. The hot flash (or flush) is the second most frequent perimenopausal symptom. The precise etiology of the hot flash is unknown; however, low or withdrawing levels of estrogen are required for a hot flash to occur. Insomnia (ie, inadequate amount or poor quality of sleep) seems to occur more frequently during the perimenopause. Menopausal hot flashes and night sweats may contribute to the increased incidence of insomnia in the perimenopause. Urinary incontinence affects 10% to 30% of women in the United States between the ages of 50 and 64 years.

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