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Obstetrics & Gynecology

Answer 2
  1. Smoking. Smoking is associated with earlier onset of menopause. A dose-dependent relationship exists between the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of smoking. Current smoking can hasten the onset of menopause by as much as 1.5 years. Former smokers also show evidence of earlier menopause. There is little correlation between the onset age of menopause and age of menarche, race, parity, or socioeconomic status.

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