Obstetrics & Gynecology
Amniocentesis is used to detect bilirubin levels in the amniotic fluid. These values can be plotted on a Queenan graph to determine further management options. Generally, once an amniocentesis is performed, it may need to be repeated several times throughout the pregnancy to monitor bilirubin levels, depending on gestational age and fetal status as seen on obstetric ultrasound examinations. MCA Doppler waveform analysis incorporates ultrasound without the risk of invasive procedures and can be used to predict fetal anemia as well. Neither fetal echocardiogram nor chorionic villi sampling are useful in management of Rh alloimmunization.
- Amniocentesis or MCA Doppler.
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