Dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular vegetations, and left ventricular thrombi are sufficiently visualized on TTE, although TEE may increase the diagnostic sensitivity for valvular vegetations. Agitated saline injection can reveal an interatrial shunt on TTE; however, TEE is required to differentiate an interatrial shunt from a PFO.4
REFERENCES 4. Doufekias E, Segal AZ, Kizer JR. Cardiogenic and aortogenic brain embolism. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;51:1049–59.