Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a familial cancer syndrome that was first identified in families with rhabdomyosarcoma. The most common nervous system tumor is a malignant glioma. These tumors often occur in patients younger than 14 years. Other malignancies that have been associated with this syndrome include other soft tissue sarcomas, premenopausal breast cancer, osteosarcoma, and leukemias. This combination of tumors has not been observed in any of the other syndromes noted.