Although virtually all possible involuntary
movements have been associated with exposure to dopamine antagonists,
orolingual movements (eg, lip-smacking, tongue protrusion, grimacing)
are most common.14 Tardive dyskinesia most often affects chronically
medicated psychiatric patients with advancing age. The pathophysiology
of tardive dyskinesia is not well defined, although supersensitive striatal
dopamine receptors are often implicated. Treatment consists of limiting
and, if possible, removing the responsible medication. For individuals
requiring continued neuroleptic therapy, use of atypical compounds (eg,
quetiapine, clozapine) is recommended.15
- Orolingual dyskinesia.
14. Ebadi M, Srinivasan SK. Pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of neuroleptic-induced movement disorders. Pharmacol Rev 1995;47:575-604.
15. Feltner DE, Hertzman M. Progress in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: theory and practice. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1993;44:25-34.
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