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Answer 2
  1. Indinavir-associated crystal-induced renal failure. Indinavir, a protease inhibitor, is commonly used to treat HIV infection. This drug causes crystal formation within the renal tubules when urine pH is above 3.5. Crystallization in the urine may lead to intrarenal crystal deposition and renal insufficiency. Asymptomatic crystalluria is sometimes noted in the absence of other clinical or laboratory signs of renal disease. Renal calculi manifested by flank pain and hematuria and more rarely obstructive uropathy from stone-related obstruction may occur during indinavir therapy. Acute tubular necrosis has not been described as a complication. Allergic interstitial nephritis is not supported by the clinical presentation or the presence of crystals in the urine.

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