Although historically thought to predispose to gastric adenocarcinoma, multiple recent trials have not found alcohol to be an independent risk factor for the development of this disease.1-3 All of the other options have been associated with the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a World Health Organization class I carcinogen due to its association with the development of gastric adenocarcinoma.
- Alcohol consumption.
1. Chow W, Swanson C, Lissowska J, et al. Risk of stomach cancer in relation to consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee in Warsaw, Poland. Int J Cancer 1999;81:871-6.
2. Ye W, Elkstrom A, Hansson L, et al. Tobacco, alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer by sub-site and histologic type. Int J Cancer 1999;83:223-9.
3. Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O. The role of tobacco, snuff and alcohol use in aetiology of cancer of the oesophagus and gastric cardia. Int J Cancer 2000;85:340-6.
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