Renal stones occur in approximately 1% of the population annually, with men twice as likely as women to develop renal stones.1 Calcium oxalate stones are the most common type of urinary calculi (70% of all stones), followed by struvite (15%-20%), calcium phosphate (5%-10%), and cystine (1%). Urinary tract infections caused by urease-producing organisms, such as Proteus species, can lead to struvite stones. Calcium-containing stones are radiopaque and can be seen on plain radiography, while stones that do not contain calcium are often radiolucent and cannot be visualized on plain radiography. Certain diseases that cause hypercalciuria, hyperuricosuria, and hypocitraturia increase the risk for stone formation.
1. Pietrow P, Karellas M. Medical management of common urinary calculi. Am Fam Physician 2006;74:86-94.
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