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Answer 1
  1. Bicuspid aortic valve disease. Approximately 2% of the general population has a bicuspid aortic valve defect.1 The bicuspid aortic valve may function normally throughout life, with late stenosis resulting from fibrocalcific thickening. Aortic stenosis resulting from bicuspid valve disease occurs from increasing rigidity of the abnormal aortic valve and increasing calcification. The congenital form of bicuspid valve is conjoined anteriorly.

     Alexander RW, Schlant RC, eds: Hurst’s The Heart, 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.

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