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Review
of Clinical Signs

Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Series Editor and Author: Frank L. Urbano, MD

1. Which of the following statements is true regarding Raynaud’s phenomenon?
  1. Cyanosis is rarely present before Raynaud’s phenomenon progresses
  2. The disease can affect the toes in as many as 75% of patients
  3. The disease is usually very painful in its initial stages
  4. If untreated, the disease can result in gangrene in some cases
  5. Laboratory testing is critical for diagnosing the disease
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2. Which of the following statements is true regarding the pathogenesis of Raynaud’s phenomenon?

  1. There is a decreased level of endothelin-1 in the blood
  2. There is a decreased level of factor VIII-von Willebrand factor antigen in the blood
  3. There is a decreased level of nitric oxide in the endothelium of the digital blood vessels
  4. There is an increased density of ß-adrenergic receptors on the digital blood vessels
  5. There is an increased number of neurons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide in the digital skin
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  3. Which of the following clinical or laboratory findings is NOT an established criterion for diagnosing secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon?
  1. Abnormal results on nail-fold capillarioscopy
  2. Episodic attacks of acral pallor or cyanosis
  3. Evidence of multi-organ system complications
  4. Positive results on antinuclear antibody testing
  5. Presence of digital pitting
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4. Which of the following conditions is NOT associated with secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon?

  1. Carpal tunnel syndrome
  2. Multiple sclerosis
  3. Peripheral vascular disease
  4. Scleroderma
  5. Sjögren’s syndrome
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5. Which of the following medications is most effective for treating symptomatic Raynaud’s phenomenon?

  1. Diltiazem
  2. Losartan
  3. Minoxidil
  4. Nicardipine
  5. Nifedipine
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