The classification system for hypertensive retinopathy consists of 4 grades as follows:
Grade I: mild narrowing of the retinal arterioles
Grade II: arteriovenous nicking (ie, venous compression
at arteriovenous crossings)
Grade III: cotton-wool spots, hemorrhages, retinal edema
Grade IV: optic disc edema
Grades 1 and 2 are considered nonmalignant hypertension whereas grades 3 and 4 are considered malignant.
Check our archives to test your knowledge in other clinical signs:
If you do not already have Acrobat Reader, simply click on the icon below, scroll down to the "Get the Free Acrobat Reader" heading and follow the instructions to install the program. Acrobat enables you to convert any document into an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) file for easy viewing.