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Answer 1
  1. 10 cm H2O; 7 mm Hg. Central venous pressure in a patient whose trunk is elevated at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees is estimated in cm H2O by measuring, in centimeters, the vertical distance between the sternal angle and the highest point of pulsation of the jugular vein and adding 5 cm to that result, to account for the approximate distance from the sternal angle to the right atrium—which is the absolute zero point for the measurement of central venous pressure. The sternal angle is the most widely accepted external reference point for estimating central venous pressure. The conversion factor between cm H2O and mm Hg is as follows: 1.36 cm H2O = 1.0 mm Hg.

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