J Clin Outcomes Manage
The relationship between anthropometric and body composition measures and carotid intima media thickness
Kolluru A, Tucciarone M, Bess RL, Salami SS, Yazigi F, Szpunar S, Rosman HS, Cohen GI
ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the relationship of carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and anthropometric measures, body mass index (BMI), and percentage body fat (%BF) after controlling for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Methods: We measured the cIMT from the bulb, internal, and common carotid arteries in 150 patients (age 46.5 ± 10.6 years; 57% female, 68% black) who presented with chest pain and no known prior history of CVD to our clinical decision unit. BMI, anthropometric measures, and bioelectrical impedance were also measured. The greatest value of maximal cIMT from all segments was categorized as < 1.0 or ?1.0 mm (as a marker for increased cIMT). Data were analyzed using Student’s t test, the Mann-Whitney U test, ?2 analyses, and multivariate stepwise logistic regression. Results: 90% (n = 135) of patients had maximal cIMT ? 1.0 mm. Hypertension was present in 41%, hyperlipidemia in 25%, smoking in 30%, diabetes in 15%, and CVD family history in 43%. Findings from univariate analysis show that increased cIMT was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), hypertension (P = 0.005), BMI (P = 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.002), neck circumference (P = 0.08), and waist-to-height ratio (P = 0.006). However, %BF did not show any statistical significance (P = 0.25). Forward stepwise logistic regressions were performed for each body composition measure that was significant on univariate analysis, with the inclusion of age and hypertension as covariates. After controlling for age, BMI, waist circumference and total body fat were statistically significant predictors of cIMT ? 1.0 mm. After controlling for age and hypertension, neck circumference and fat-free mass were also significant predictors of cIMT ? 1.0mm. Conclusion: BMI and several body composition measures, independent of age and hypertension, are associated with increased cIMT, and are a surrogate for early atherosclerosis among patients with no known prior cardiovascular events.
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