J Clin Outcomes Manage
Obstructive sleep apnea in children
Abstract Objective: To review the evaluation, management, and pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Methods: Literature review in the context of a clinical case. Results: The estimated prevalence of OSA in the pediatric population is approximately 2% to 4% and is becoming more common given the increasing prevalence of obesity. OSA is characterized by recurrent obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in sleep fragmentation and gas exchange abnormalities. The cause of OSA is increased upper airway resistance and collapsibility. The diagnostic modality of choice is polysomnography. Adenotonsillectomy is first-line treatment in children with adenotonsillar issues, although obese patients may have residual disease. If OSA is left untreated, neurobehavioral, cardiovascular, and metabolic complications can result. Conclusion: OSA is a common disorder in children and adolescents, especially in the context of obesity. Aggressive management is warranted to avoid significant sequelae.
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